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Advanced Query Features

Types and signatures#

Angle queries are strongly typed: the server will check your query for type-safety before executing it. Type-checking ensures that the query makes sense; that it's not trying to pattern-match strings against integers, or look for a field in a record that doesn't exist for example.

Angle's type-checker isn't very clever, though. It mostly doesn't do type inference, it checks that expressions have the intended type. When it doesn't know the intended type of an expression, it uses a dumb inference mode that can only infer the type when it's really obvious: like a fact match, or a string.

facts> P where C = { name = "Fish" }; example.Parent { C, P }can't infer the type of: {name = "Fish"}    try adding a type annotation like ({name = "Fish"} : T)    or reverse the statement (Q = P instead of P = Q)

In cases like this, Angle's type-checker needs a bit of help. We can use a type signature to supply more information about the type:

facts> P where C = { name = "Fish" } : example.Class; example.Parent { C, P }{ "id": 1024, "key": { "name": "Pet", "line": 10 } }

Here we used { name = "Fish" } : example.Class to tell Angle the expected type of the pattern. You should read the colon as "has type", and the type can be any valid Angle type, for details see Built-in types.

Explicit fact IDs#

Every fact has an ID, which is a 64-bit integer that uniquely identifies the fact in a particular database. You've probably noticed these fact IDs in the query results: every result has an id field with the fact ID, and a key field with the fact key.

Most Angle queries don't need to mention fact IDs explicitly, but sometimes it's useful. For example, you might need to perform a query to fetch some results, do some custom filtering on the results and then query Glean again using some of the fact IDs from the first query.

WARNING: a fact ID only makes sense in the context of a particular database, so make sure that your query that mentions fact IDs is being made on the same database that you obtained the fact ID from originally.

Glean has a syntax for referring to fact IDs directly; for example

facts> $1026 : example.Class{ "id": 1026, "key": { "name": "Fish", "line": 30 } }

the syntax is $<fact ID>, but you will often want to use it with a type signature, as $<fact ID> : <predicate>.

If you get the predicate wrong, Glean will complain:

facts> $1026 : example.Parent*** Exception: fact has the wrong type

The type can be omitted only if it is clear from the context, for example

facts> example.Parent { child = $1026 }{ "id": 1029, "key": { "child": { "id": 1026 }, "parent": { "id": 1024 } } }

Sometimes you might want to use multiple fact IDs in a query. Or-patterns come in handy here:

facts> example.Parent { child = $1026 | $1027 }

Functional predicates#

All the predicates we've seen so far have been key-only predicates. A predicate can also have a value; we call these functional predicates or key-value predicates.

For example, we might model a reference to a class in our example schema like this:

predicate Reference :  { file : string, line : nat, column : nat } -> Class

This says that for a given (file,line,column) there can be at most one reference to a Class. This uniqueness is the important property of a key-value predicate: for each key there is at most one value.

We query for key-value predicates using this syntax:

facts> C where example.Reference { file = "x", line = 1, column = 2 } -> C

The pattern after the -> matches the value. It can be an arbitrary pattern, just like the key. Note that facts cannot be efficiently searched by value, so the pattern that matches the value is a filter only.